Tutorial on Embodiment
In the early 1980's, the cognitivist paradigm was challenged by connectionism (e.g., Hofstadter 1985, McClelland & Rumelhart 1986, Smolensky 1988). The focus here is still on computation performed within the ‘brain'. However, rather than sequential, centralized and symbolic as in the cognitivist case, the computation is parallel, distributed and so-called subsymbolic in its nature. Cognition emerges from a network of simple interacting components. The most popular substrate to implement connectionist architectures have become artificial neural networks.
Hofstadter, D.R. (1985). Waking up from Boolean dream, or, subcognition as computation. In: Hofstadter, D.R. (1985): Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern. Bantam Books, Toronto, 1985, pp. 631-665.
McClelland, J. L., Rumelhart, D. E., & the PDP Research Group (1986). Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Vol. 2: Psychological and biological models. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
Smolensky, P. (1988). On the proper treatment of connectionism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11(1), 1-23.